25 Formerly in the collection of the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków, its whereabouts remain unknown. There were over 1,000 underground newspapers; 98 among the most important were the Biuletyn Informacyjny of Armia Krajowa and Rzeczpospolita of the Government Delegation for Poland. The state of Polish primary schools was somewhat better in the General Government, 38 though by the end of 1940, only 30 of prewar schools were operational, and only 28 of prewar Polish children attended them. 49 Other important patrons of Polish culture included the Roman Catholic Church and Polish aristocrats, who likewise supported artists and safeguarded Polish heritage (notable patrons included Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha and a former politician, Janusz Radziwił ). 47 The last Polish book titles not already proscribed were withdrawn in 1943; even Polish prayer books were confiscated. 38 Some Polish schoolchildren were sent to German schools, while others were sent to special schools where they spent most of their time as unpaid laborers, usually on German-run farms; speaking Polish brought severe punishment. 295 a b c d e f g h i Madajczyk 1970,. . Sverige, besök Mars Nordics hemsida. 215, 221 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 7 10 He and Frank agreed that opportunities for the Poles to experience their culture should be severely restricted: no theaters, cinemas or cabarets; no access to radio or press; and no education. 34 35 In some parts of occupied Poland, Poles were restricted, or even forbidden, from attending religious services. 85 Overall, in that period in the General Government, one of every three children was receiving some sort of education from the underground organizations; the number rose to about 70 for children old enough to attend secondary school. 65 The name "Poland" was banned.
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10 Shuttered museums were replaced by occasional art exhibitions that frequently conveyed propagandist themes. Under such circumstances, the school day, which normally lasts five hours, is reduced to one hour. A b c (in Polish) Rewindykacja dóbr kultury at Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 190 a b Hempel 2003,. . 28 The Nazis planned to level entire cities. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, initiating World War II in Europe, and on 17 September, pursuant to the MolotovRibbentrop Pact, Poland was invaded by the Soviet Union. 222 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 38 It was expected that Polish children would begin to work once they finished their primary education at age 12. 24 Even exotic animals were taken from the zoos. All institutions of the dismantled Polish state, including the Lwów University, were closed, then reopened, mostly with new Russian directors. Google Print,.122123 a b Salmonowicz 1994,. . 419 Ferguson 2006,. .
and Aquarium History: Ancient Animal Collections to Zoological Gardens, CRC Press, ISBlimaszewski, Bolesław (1984 An Outline History of Polish Culture, Interpress, isbn Knuth, Rebecca (2003 Libricide:The Regime-Sponsored Destruction of Books and Libraries in the Twentieth Century, Greenwood Publishing Group. 244 a b c Salmonowicz 1994,. . 125 There were also Polish theaters in exile in both the East and the West. Initial efforts were directed towards creating a negative image of pre-war Poland, 18 and later efforts were aimed at fostering anti-Soviet, antisemitic, and pro-German attitudes. Over the years, nearly three-quarters of the Polish people have emphasized the importance of World War II to the Polish national identity. The Soviet Union had to temporarily give up the territorial gains it made in 1939 due to the German invasion of the Soviet Union, but permanently re-annexed much of this territory after winning it back in mid-1944. 169170 a b Madajczyk 1970,. . The term denotes an entire generation of Poles, born soon after Poland regained independence in 1918, whose adolescence was marked by World War. 2 37 48 Censorship and propaganda edit Kraków, 1941. 229 a b c Madajczyk 1970,. . 99 The Polish underground also published booklets and leaflets from imaginary anti-Nazi German organizations aimed at spreading disinformation and lowering morale among the Germans. (1997 The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, Regent College Publishing, isbn Cornis-Pope, Marcel; Neubauer, John (2004 History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe, John Benjamins Publishing Company, isbn Davies, Norman (1996 Europe: A History, Oxford University Press, isbn Davies. 9 Slavic people living east of the pre-war German border were to be Germanized, enslaved or eradicated, 9 depending on whether they lived in the territories directly annexed into the German state or in the General Government.
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73 Underground culture edit Patrons edit Polish culture persisted in underground education, publications, even theater. 228 a b c Madajczyk 1970,. . 72 These activities were strictly controlled by the Soviet authorities, which saw to it that these activities portrayed the new Soviet regime in a positive light and vilified the former Polish government. 40 In the eastern territories not included in the General Government ( Bezirk Bialystok, Reichskommissariat Ostland and Reichskommissariat Ukraine ) many primary schools were closed, and most education was conducted in non-Polish languages such as Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Lithuanian. Over the course of the war, Poland lost over 20 of its pre-war population amid an occupation that marked the end of the Second Polish Republic. 24 The looting was supervised by experts of the SS - Ahnenerbe, Einsatzgruppen units, who were responsible for art, and by experts of Haupttreuhandstelle Ost, who were responsible for more mundane objects. 43 Classes and schools were to be merged, Polish teachers dismissed, and the resulting savings used to sponsor the creation of schools for children of the German minority or to create barracks for German troops. 16 99 The highest recorded publication volume was an issue of Biuletyn Informacyjny printed in 43,000 copies; average volume of larger publication was 1,0005,000 copies. 38 Queen Bona's 16th century royal casket, looted and destroyed by the Germans in 1939 The Germans were especially active in the destruction of Jewish culture in Poland; nearly all of the wooden synagogues there were destroyed. Dear, majority of scholars believe that "In the Soviet occupation zone, conditions were only marginally less harsh than under the Germans." 2 In September 1939, many Polish Jews had fled east; after some months of living under.
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